According to a PhD thesis to be defended at the Mid Sweden University, the utilization of biomass from managed forests as a source of green energy is efficient at reducing CO2 emissions and at replacing fossil fuels.

Interestingly, the most energy efficient way to transport this 'forest fuel' is by relying on a lashed system instead of on pelletizing the biomass.

Researcher Lisa Eriksson found that large-scale, long-distance transports of biofuels from central Sweden to central Europe may be both a cost-effective and attractive way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. She undertook comparative analyses of costs, primary energy use, and CO2 emissions performed for various forest fuel systems.

The findings show that a system of lashed branches and tops from harvested forests evinces good cost-effectiveness. It also has a high potential to reduce the net emissions of CO2 per hectare of forest.

A large number of systems were compared in terms of terrain, concentration of forest fuel, and transport distance. If the preconditions are changed, then the potential for the various forest fuel systems changes as well. Eriksson compared these different systems on a local, national, and international scale.